|1. Understand the background to organisational strategic change|
|1.1 discuss models of strategic change|
|1.2 evaluate the relevance of models of strategic change to organisations in the current economy|
|1.3 assess the value of using strategic intervention techniques in organisations|
|2. Understand issues relating to strategic change in an organisation|
|2.1 examine the need for strategic change in an organisation|
|2.2 assess the factors that are driving the need for strategic change in an organisation|
|2.3 assess the resource implications of the organisation not responding to strategic change|
|3. Be able to lead stakeholders in developing a strategy for change|
|3.1 develop systems to involve stakeholders in the planning of change|
|3.2 develop a change management strategy with stakeholders|
|3.3 evaluate the systems used to involve stakeholders in the planning of change|
|3.4 create a strategy for managing resistance to change|
|4. Be able to plan to implement models for ensuring ongoing change|
|4.1 develop appropriate models for change|
|4.2 plan to implement a model for change|
|4.3 develop appropriate measures to monitor progress|
|Notes on exactly what must be done to succeed in the assessment are written below, then followed by a reminder of the content of the module, organised cording to the assessment criteria above.
Assessment Criteria Notes
Learners need to research information from a chosen organisation and develop a report on planning strategic change in that organisation.
For 1.1, learners need to show that they understand the different approaches to models of change management. They need to discuss a minimum of three established models, highlighting the differences in approach.
For 1.2, in the introduction to their report learners need to evaluate the relevance of the models of strategic change, using examples from organisations. They need to explain why the models for change are appropriate in their selected examples.
For 1.3, learners will be expected to assess the value of using strategic intervention techniques that are used in organisations. These need to be applied to the organisation in their report.
For 2.1 and 2.2, it is expected that learners will show an understanding of the forces that are impacting on an organisation and driving the need for change.
Showing understanding needs to be more than just a list of forces and change drivers. Learners need to demonstrate that they have researched and examined the current position of the organisation and that they are able to assess the factors in the organisation that are driving the need for change.
For 2.3, learners need to assess the resource implications of the organisation not responding to change. It is expected that learners will assess the relevant financial, human and physical resources. They are not expected to cost the resource implications for the organisation.
For 3.1, learners need to develop systems to involve stakeholders in the planning of change. The systems need to be appropriate and workable in the selected organisation.
For 3.2, learners need to show that they understand the different strategies that are available in the process of change management. They need to develop an appropriate strategy for change in the selected organisation and show how they would involve stakeholders in the development of this strategy.
For 3.3, learners need to make judgements on the effectiveness of the systems used to involve stakeholders in the development of a change strategy. They need to evaluate the process, taking count of anything that worked well and anything that did not work well or could have worked better.
For 3.4, learners need to show that they recognise that resistance to change can show itself in different ways. If managed badly, resistance can become entrenched and spread throughout the organisation. Learners need to create a strategy for managing resistance to change that is appropriate to their selected organisation. It needs to address the issues and provide a workable approach to overcome the resistance.
For 4.1, learners need to develop appropriate models for ongoing change in their selected organisation. The models need to reflect the circumstances facing the organisation.
For 4.2, learners need to show how they would plan to implement the model for change in their selected organisation. Internal and external circumstances impacting on the organisation also need to be considered.
For 4.3, learners need to develop measures to monitor the progress of the change model once it is launched. The measures will need to be practical, workable and appropriate to the organisational context.
Unit Content – linked to Assessment Criteria
1 Understand the background to organisational strategic change
Models: John P Kotter’s eight steps to successful change; Kübler-Ross five stages transition (grief) cycle; Prosci’s five building blocks ADKAR (awareness, desire, knowledge, ability, reinforcement) model; McKinsey’s 7S (strategy, structure, systems, shared values, skills, style, staff) framework; Kurt Lewin’s change management model – unfreeze, transition and refreeze; Burke-Litwin’s causal change model; tion research; gap analysis
Strategic interventions: teambuilding consensus and conflict, game play, contingency theory, autocratic versus participative style, proactive and reactive, creating synergy; human process interventions; techno-structural interventions; human resources management interventions; organisational and external environment interventions
2 Understand issues relating to strategic change in an organisation
Need for change: reasons for change eg changes in markets, economic downturns, changes in global markets, customer expectations, competitive edge, budget pressures, legislation, size, demographics, mergers, quisitions, change in mission, restructuring operations, new technologies, major collaborations, rightsizing, new programmes such as Total Quality Management (TQM), re-engineering
Factors driving the change: change drivers eg economics, political factors, environmental, financial pressures, new markets, loss of markets, technological advances, transition to a new chief executive, funding cuts, need to be competitive
Resource implication: human resources eg restructuring, interviewing and hiring, redundancies, training; physical resources eg equipment, vehicles, buildings; financial resources eg costs of training, redundancy costs, relocation costs; new building, refurbishment of existing buildings
3 Be able to lead stakeholders in developing a strategy for change
Systems to involve stakeholders: stakeholder analysis, systems modelling, systems and sub-systems, input transformation-output modelling, multiple cause diagrams, ‘tropics’ factors, configuration, divergence and convergence, functional and divisional structures, cultural web, images of organisations, team development, influencing skills, awareness raising, commitment development
Involving stakeholders in the change management strategy: six steps stakeholder circle (identify stakeholders, prioritise stakeholders, map their profiles, develop an engagement strategy, optimise their support, monitor changes); methods of involvement eg dialogue with individuals and groups, meetings, presentations, group facilitation, team building, coaching, delegating, developing and sharing a change plan
Resistance to change: types of resistance eg individual versus collective, passive versus tive, direct versus indirect, behavioural versus verbal or attitudinal, minor versus major, resistance to the content of change, resistance to the process of change.
Strategies: eg open communications, education, involvement, forums, listening to stakeholders, feedback, addressing needs, ownership of the change, change champions, communicate the vision, getting the support of all key power players, focus on the positives, delivering training programmes
4 Be able to plan to implement models for ensuring ongoing change
Plan to develop appropriate models for change: choice of appropriate model eg John P Kotter’s eight steps to successful change; Kübler-Ross five stages transition (grief) cycle; Prosci’s five building blocks ADKAR (awareness, desire, knowledge, ability, reinforcement) model; McKinsey’s 7S (strategy, structure, systems, shared values, skills, style, staff) framework; Kurt Lewin’s change management model – unfreeze, transition and refreeze; Burke-Litwin’s causal change model; tion research; gap analysis
Plan to implement a model for change: organisational development, Business Process Re-Engineering (BPR), learning organisation, Kaizen, delayering and right-sizing, matrix organisations, network organisations, adhocracy, virtual organisation, push and pull strategies, conflict handling, transformational leadership, empowerment, consultation, contextual planning, contingency planning, adjustments, flexibility
Develop appropriate measures to monitor progress: eg goal-based evaluation, process-based evaluation, outcome-based evaluation, regular reports, meetings, quality circles, progress reviews, milestones, deadlines
This Assignment is based upon the Pearson Edexcel Strategic Management and Leadership from August 2010 Programme Specification found at http://www.lcbuk.org/pdf/Edexcel_level7_SML.pdf